Germany, 1994 and 1998

A comparison between the campaigns of the German SPD in 1994 and 1998 is a good illustration for this point. Despite the weakness of the incumbent, the 1994 campaign never really caught fire. Four years later, and having learned from 1994, the SPD carried out a rapid, witty and strong campaign. As a result, the SPD was able to form the government for the first time in 16 years.